The Rubinstein & Hope Families

The matters contained in the previous sections, which relate to Isabella Lewis, Michael Hyams etc, are not relevant to those who are descended from the Hope family, but not the Hyams. The marriage of Barnett Hyam to Selina Hope, however, renders any information from that point on, which is relevant to the Hyams family, equally relevant to members of the Hope family.

Isaac Rubinstein

1834 Birth: Bertha Rubinstein: Nothing is known of her father, Isaac, except that his daughter, who was to marry Nathan Hope, was born somewhere in Germany in or about this date.

It should be noted that none of Bertha's sons was named after him in English or in Hebrew, unless this was Edwin Hope's Hebrew name. According to Ashkenazi naming customs, a child is named after deceased ancestors, but not during an ancestor's lifetime. So far as we know, none of the descendants of Bertha Hope‑-nee Rubinstein‑-was named after her father, which leaves at least three possibilities:

If the Hebrew name of Edwin (1858-1920), Mark (1861-1870), or Benjamin Hope (b.1863), was Isaac, this would limit the date of Isaac's death as falling after the birth of one of these, or

If none were named after Isaac, he might even have survived the birth of Hyman Hope in 1874. Otherwise, the latter might well have been named after Isaac, either alone or as Chayim Isaac or Isaac Chayim, or

Bertha may well not have been Isaac's only surviving adult issue and the child of a sibling was named after him.

Chayim (Hyman) Hope Senior

We know only slightly more about Chayim (Hyman) Hope Senior.

1834 Nathan Hope (his son) was born, in the town of Coerlin-an-der-Persante, in Prussia, (also referred to in Polish as Karlino). As to the names of his descendants, the same considerations apply as to Isaac Rubinstein, except that in the case of the Hopes, we do know that Hyman Hope (1874-1916) was named after his grandfather. It would therefore seem that Chayim Hope (Sr) died some time after the death of Benjamin Hope.

According to information later recorded by Nathan Hope, his father was a "writer." This presumably means a Sofer (scribe) and in the Wardens' Book of the Great Synagogue in Manchester, Nathan's father is referred to as a Rabbi. Even assuming that records etc. exist in so disputed a territory, after two world wars and the rule of Nazis and Communists for many years, a great obstacle to further research is that we do not know for sure, what was the original family name.

The Name 'Hope'

The general feeling in the family was that 'Hope' is too English to be true. The information provided by Leon Lewin, Gertie Daniels, and Elsie Blundell was that the name was originally 'Hoppe', but this information was probably passed from one to another and back again, without any basis in fact. My sister, Susan, informed me that the dictionary defines 'Hoppe' firstly in terms of 'baby talk' viz. 'Hoppe Reiter machen' = 'Ride a cock-horse'. Some Jews did acquire somewhat or extremely comical names, but 'hopp' also means 'quick', and it gives 'hopp gehen' translated as 'chop chop'! Alternatively therefore, if Hyman (Senior) had anything like his son, Nathan's, brisk personality, this could have been his nickname, which became transformed into a surname. I have subsequently been surprised to find, however, that there were many Jews with the name 'Hoppe' in Germany, and even one called 'Hope'.

The forename 'Hyman' is usually an anglicisation of 'Chayim'. Because there is no suggestion that he set foot in England, I have agreed with Fred Pendlebury that we use the convention 'Chayim Hope' for Hyman Hope [Sr].

Prussia

According to statements of Nathan Hope, the origin of the family was in Coerlin an-der-Persante. The following background information is summarised from Wilkipedia:

Prussia, most recently, was a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. The last capital of Prussia was Berlin. Until the 20th century, Germany was not a single state, but a mess of kingdoms, principalities, Archbishoprics etc. The Iron Chancellor, Bismarck, succeeded—to some extent—in unifying many of them, and bringing them under the wings of Prussia, with the result that the Kingdom of Prussia became the most important state in Germany, and developed into the German Empire.

The kings of Prussia, during the period of our known ancestors, were:
Frederick II, (1740-1786)—later nicknamed "Frederick the Great"
Frederick William II (1786-1797)
Frederick William III (1797-1840).

In response to devastating defeat by Napoleon at the battle of Jena-Auerstedt, reformers set about modernizing the Prussian state, including the liberation of peasants from serfdom, and the institution of self-administration in municipalities. The school system was rearranged and in 1810 free trade was introduced. The army was reformed, and compulsory military service introduced. Most important to us, was the emancipation of the Jews, resulting in their full citizenship.

In 1919, following World War I, and the end of the Hohenzollern monarchy in Germany, Prussia became part of the Weimar Republic. Prussia as a state was abolished de facto by the Nazis in 1934, and de jure by the Allied Powers in 1947.

Since then, the term's relevance has been limited to historical, geographical, or cultural usages. Even today, a certain kind of ethic is called "Prussian virtues", for instance: perfect organization, sacrifice, rule of law, obedience to authority and militarism, but also reliability, tolerance, thriftiness, punctuality, modesty, and diligence. Many Prussians believed that these virtues were part of the reasons for the rise of their country. Of these virtues, organization, respect for the rule of law, obedience to authority, reliability, and most famously, punctuality, are particularly found in German Jews (known as Yekkes).

West Prussia

In 1772, with the First Partition of Poland, by Russia and Prussia, later including Austria, Pomerania was annexed to West Prussia—part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1890, the population of West Prussia numbered 1,433,681, including 681,195 Protestants, 717,532 Catholics, and 21,750 Jews.

After the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, most of West Prussia was granted to the Second Polish Republic, while small parts of the west and east of the former province remained in Germany. The western remainder formed Posen-West Prussia in 1922, while the eastern remainder became part of the District of West Prussia within East Prussia.

In the Potsdam Conference of 1945 after World War II, all of former West Prussia was placed under the administration of Poland and was later recognized as part of Poland by East and West Germany in ensuing decades.

Pomerania

Pomerania was at one time a Duchy over which there were many disputes during the centuries. In 1637, the last of the Wendish Dukes of Pomerania died without direct male successor. During the Thirty Years War, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden occupied Pomerania. In the negotiations between France, Brandenburg, and Sweden, Brandenburg acquired rights of succession over Pomerania, although disputes with Sweden continued until the Treaty of Stockholm in 1720.

Prussian noblemen began to acquire estates in Pomerania, while Pomeranian noblemen were integrated into Prussian society. Wendish noble families intermarried with German families; by the nineteenth century Pomerania was mostly Germanised, and was a popular place of retirement for the wealthy, such as Bismarck.

Many leading officers and highly decorated German soldiers were from Pomerania, where Prussian militarism had exercised its influence for centuries. This did not mean that Prussians were necessarily Nazis, and however ineffective they might have been, some networks of aristocratic estates, and the loyalties they generated, resulted in anti-Nazi conspiracies.

After the defeat of Germany in 1945, most of Pomerania became Polish. The entire German population fled, were expelled, or lost their lives, according to the results of the Potsdam Conference.

The eastern part of Pomerania, Pomorze, is a geographical and historical region in Poland that encompasses three Polish voivodeships: the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (Zachodniopomorskie), Pomeranian Voivodeship (Pomorskie) and the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (Kujawsko-Pomorskie). What is confusing is that east and west are relative terms, as anything in Poland is to the east of what was West Prussia.

West Pomerania

This is a picturesque region of the Baltic Sea coast, with lakes and woodlands. Its proximity to various borders and to the Baltic Sea means that the district is situated on the crossroad of significant trade routes of international importance.

West Pomerania, whose capital is Szczecin‑-Stettin in German‑-is the fifth largest voivodeship of Poland in terms of its size. West Pomerania is considered one of the greenest regions of Poland, and one of the most attractive ones when it comes to tourism. It is characterized by a diversity of landscape: beaches, hundreds of lakes, and forests full of wild life, spreading mainly up the hills of the glacial lakes areas. West Pomerania is also rich in various forms and styles of architecture that were built during the Middle Ages as well as the Gothic, Baroque, and Renaissance periods. There is a diverse repertoire of theaters, festivals, museums and galleries.

Karlino (German: Koerlin an der Persante) is a town in what is now Białogard County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. It should not be confused with Korlino (Deutsch: Koerlin im ehemaligen Kreis Schlawe). It has a population of 5,729 (2004).


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Part of the Market Square. BERTHA RUBINSTEIN & NATHAN HOPE Until her marriage, we have no information relating to Bertha Rubinstein except that she was the daughter of Isaac Rubinstein; she was born somewhere in Germany in about 1834, and she was married to Nathan Hope in 1856—when she was living at Great Clewes St, Manchester. Her subsequent history is included in that of Nathan Hope. Nathan Hope was born on 5th July 1834 in Koerlin-an-der-Persante, Pomerania, now known as Karlino in Poland, and was the most colorful of our known ancestors. Having arrived in England at a time when emigration was generally attributable to economic depression, epidemic, famine, and anti-Semitism, he established, and prospered in, a cap-making business—which was carried on until the 1960s by his grandson, Leon Lewin. He was also well known in the Jewish community. A photograph taken perhaps in his fifties or sixties shows him to have been a fine-looking man, well-dressed, and with a glint of humor about the eyes and mouth. We do not know when he emigrated, but we have not found him in the 1851 census of Manchester. Although his business was eventually carried on at Anchor Works, and Nathan's name and the date 1853 are above the doorway, I would have thought that the date relates to the building and that his name was added later. Emma [see below] married into the Lewin family, who carried on the cap-making and 'Anchor Millinery' business in Manchester until about 1959, when Leon Lewin finally closed it. Peter Lewin was still in cap-making in London in the '70s. According to his descendants Gertie Daniels and Elsie Blundell, he arrived in England at the age of 13 and first lived in Oldham—but we have no evidence. I doubt whether he would have arrived alone at such an early age, there is no trace of his parents or any siblings in England, and had he arrived at such an early age, his English should have been less germanified. Nathan Hope married Bertha Rubinstein on Wednesday August 20 1856 and had ten known children, who are dealt with separately. Bertha died at age 42 caused by the onset of a premature birth, neither mother nor child surviving. Nathan never re-married. For reasons unknown, Nathan and Bertha moved both their residence and business premises around North Manchester surprisingly frequently, and sometimes returned to a former address. Fred takes the view that they did not own any real property and therefore rented property in accordance with supply and demand. I feel that it is more likely that the Hopes owned these properties and pleased themselves whether to let or to occupy them. In 1876 Nathan was naturalized, and subsequently received a passport in order to travel with his daughter Emma. No record of Bertha having taken out British citizenship has ever been discovered. There is no doubt that within the memory of those who knew him, such as Grandpa Michael Hyam and Leon Lewin, his business prospered and the lifestyle of the family matched it. After Bertha died Nathan continued to devote much of his time and energy to his business. Notes on the issue of Nathan and Bertha follow, after which we will return to the end of Nathan's life. My reason is to save too much cross-referencing, which would be necessary to understand what happened. EMMA HOPE, LEO LEWIN & THEIR ISSUE Emma, the eldest child of ten known children of Nathan and Bertha Hope (nee Rubinstein), was born at the family home 56 Moreton Street on Tuesday May 12 1857. Emma married Leo Lewin (not to be confused with Leon Lewin) on Tuesday May 17 1881 at the home of her parents, 43 Broughton Lane, Salford. There were seven known children of the marriage At this point I must mention a factor which will impinge with ever-increasing frequency upon the turn of events, that is to say marriage outside the Jewish fold. These notes should be regarded as an amateur history of our common ancestors, and no criticism is implied of any individual living or dead. In mainstream Judaism, the definition of—Who is a Jew?—is a person whose mother was Jewish, or who was converted to Judaism in accordance with Jewish Law. This means that however unwelcome it would be, a marriage between a Jewish woman and a non-Jewish man results in children who are Jewish. Conversely, the marriage between a Jewish man and a non-Jewish woman is a far more serious matter. The issue are not Jewish and are not even regarded as his children, but are the mother's children. Leo Lewin took over the cap business, because of the estrangement of Edwin Hope, the dissipation of Rufus Lewis and the death of Hyman Hope. The Lewins lived in a large house in Upper Park Road, but as the business contracted, the upkeep became a financial burden and the family moved to a smaller residence in the same area. The End of Nathan Hope's Life Edwin, the eldest male heir, would no doubt have inherited Nathan's business, but he was estranged from the family. Hyman Hope, Nathan's youngest son predeceased him, and therefore Nathan handed the business over to his son-in-law Leo Lewin (not to be confused with Leon Lewin) No doubt because of Hyman's untimely decease, Nathan executed a will dated March 20 1916 leaving all his personal estate to daughters Edith and Rachel, with whom he was living at the time of his death. Edith is not shown on the family list although someone called Ida is, which probably means that the two were interchangeable. Emma had benefited by the vesting of the business in her husband Leo. Edwin would have received nothing [see below]. I have no doubt that Nathan had made a settlement on his daughter Selina Hyam in his lifetime, otherwise there was no accounting for the lifestyle of the Hyam family. At the time of Nathan's death Edwin ( who had been "outed" and was no longer regarded as part of the family ) and so was not mentioned in his will, his only other son Hyam had died a year earlier than Nathan, so any assets that he had were then left to his daughters. Nathan HOPE died on Sunday July 23 1916 at 2 Mather Avenue, Prestwich aged eighty one ( 81) years and is buried in Plot CR 2275 at the Jewish Cemetery in Crumpsall. Bertha who pre-deceased Nathan is probably buried in the same plot. Cause of death was noted as Epirhelioma of the Larynx ( in layman terms.....cancer ?) Nathan was a very respected member of the Jewish community and the following obituary appeared in the Jewish Chronicle on Friday August 4 1916. "Regret has been expressed in the community at the death in his 81st year of Mr Nathan HOPE, he was particularly esteemed by a large circle of friends for his many excellent qualities, for many years he assisted the Rev. I Simon by officiating on the High Festivals at the South Broughton Synagogue. Mr HOPE was a much respected member of several Friendly Societies, at one time he was President of one Lodge in Bnei Brith and founder of another, a old and valued member of the Great Synagogue for a very long time, in later years he became a seat holder at the Higher Broughton Synagogue ". Nathan Hope left a legacy of many assets for his remaining family to have and hold onto, the fact that they were unable to duplicate Nathan over the latter years is unfortunate, however their failure bears no significance on a man who gave so much to his family and to his community during his lifetime. After Nathan passed away in 1916 and having no male heirs to carry on his business it was carried on by Emma and her husband Leo LEWIN they succeeded in dissipating much of what Nathan had built up through various bad speculations and poor management, the LEWIN family have left no "footprints" for us to follow up and therefore the demise of the cap factory commenced by Nathan can only be regarded as very unfortunate. In 1997 several photographs of a building that Nathan owned were taken, the address was then 55 Blacklock Street, Manchester, above the main entrance was his name and the name of the company "ANCHOR CAP WORKS" a date was visible and this was 1853, this would indicate that Nathan at a tender age of nineteen years ( 19) was already in his own right as an employer. Due to the severe restraints imposed on the Jewish people this led to a family "split" when Edwin his eldest son had a child out of wedlock and who was to eventually marry a non Jewish girl (Sarah BOWMAN) this was further exacerbated as Sarah was also an employee of Nathan's in his cap factory. Arranged marriages were quiet common and any departure from the norm was met with such anger and outrage that this led to many families living apart. Edwin moved away from the Jewish community in Manchester and only returned on the day of Nathan's funeral, and in an attempt at reconciliation recited Kaddish at the service, this attempt was ignored by the family and so no further contact was made with Edwin or his immediate family.
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